Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Citation Guide : CSE style

CSE tutorials

Click here to access an abbreviated CSE citation guide at Ohio State University Library.

Click here to access CSE tutorial offered by University of North Carolina.

Click here to access Diana Hacker's Research and Documentation online.

Basic CSE Rules In-Text Citations

CSE has three options for citing references within the text, each of which is described below. Different fields of study tend to prefer one over the other so use whichever is preferred for the class you are in. The information below was adapted from Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers (7th ed.). 

Citation-Sequence

  • Each source should be assigned an Arabic numeral based on the order that it appears in the text.  Only one number is assigned to a particular source even if it is cited more then once in the text. The full citation of the source is found in the reference list at the end of the document. These references appear in the order that they are cited in the text of the document.
  • If the reference numbers are not in sequential order, separte them with a comma without any space between them. For more than 2 numbers that are in sequential order, connect the first and last number with a hyphen (or en dash if preferred).

              Example:  Modern scientific nomenclature really began with Linneaus in botany 1 , but other disciplines 2,3 were not

                                 many years behind indeveloping various systems 4-7 for nomenclature and symbolization.          

  • The use of sueprscripts for the reference numbers is preferred, but the numbers can also be placed on the line within a parenthesis. If this method is used be sure other numbers that appear in parenthesis in the text that do not refer to references are followed by a term, unit or symbol that distinguishes them from in-text references.

              Example: . . . the high value (12 g/L) previously reported (17) was later shown to have been . . .

  • In-text references should be placed immediatly after the title, word or phrase to which it refers, rather than coming at the end of long clauses or sentences.
  • Separate in-text references from adjacent text by single spaces before and after them, except when they are followed by a punctuation mark.


Name-Year

  • For each reference, place the surname of the author and the year published after the reference, encolsed in parenthesis. The full citations are found in the reference list at the end of the document in alphabetical order.
  • For multiple works published by the same author in different years, place the years after the author name in chronological order separated by a comma and space.

               Example: Bartlett's studies of echinoderms (Bartlett 2001, 2004, 2009) have shown that . . .

  • For authors with identical surnames that published in the same year, include their initials of their first name and separate the references using a semi-colon and space

              Example: Previous studies have shown increased growth rates with this treatment (Jones K 2011; Jones M 2011).

  • If a work has 2 authors, include both surnames separated by "and." If the work has 3 or more authors, include only the surname of the first author, followed by "et al." and the publication year.

              Examples: . . . and the most recent work on albuterol administration (Mazan and Hoffman 2001) is . . . 

                                 More recent studies (Gallagher et al. 2010) showed that . . . 

  • If an organization or corporation is the author, use the first initials of its name or a recognizable abbreviation and the year.

              Example: Protected areas in Costa Rica, for example, receive more than one million visitors each year (UNEP 2013) . . .

  • In-text references should be placed immediatly after the title, word or phrase to which it refers, rather than coming at the end of long clauses or sentences.
  • Separate in-text references from adjacent text by single spaces before and after them, except when they are followed by a punctuation mark.


Citation-Name

  • Citations should first be ordered in the reference list alphabetically by author and then by title. Each of these are assigned a number, which is used for the in-text citations regardless of the order the citations appear in the text. For example, if a work by Harrison is the first item cited in the document and it has been assigned the reference list number of 15, then 15 would be used in the document, not the number 1.
     
  • When several in-text references occur in the same place, put the in-text reference numbers in numerical order. If the reference numbers are not in sequential order, separte them with a comma without any space between them. For more than 2 numbers that are in sequential order, connect the first and last number with a hyphen (or en dash if preferred).
  • The use of sueprscripts for the in-text reference numbers is preferred, but the numbers can also be placed on the line within a parenthesis. If this method is used be sure other numbers that appear in parenthesis in the text that do not refer to references are followed by a term, unit or symbol that distinguishes them from in-text references.
  • In-text references should be placed immediatly after the title, word or phrase to which it refers, rather than coming at the end of long clauses or sentences.
  • Separate in-text references from adjacent text by single spaces before and after them, except when they are followed by a punctuation mark.